Characteristics of summertime spatial distribution of phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a in a major eutrophic Arctic lake Imandra (Murmansk Region, Russia) as associated with harmful algal blooms

Н.А. Кашулин, А.К. Бекклунд, В.А. Даувальтер

Abstract


The lake Imandra is a major Arctic water basin where harmful algal blooms (HABs) are observed regularly starting from the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. HABs occur in the lake at significantly lower temperatures and phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) levels than in lakes located at lower latitudes. With regard to the above, the interrelationships between and the patterns of the spatial distributions of P, N and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in the upper layers of the lake have been considered. The complex outline of and strong gravity currents in the lake combined with potent focal anthropogenic sources of P and N determine the gradients of biogenic elements levels in the lake. Their examination suggest that HABs development is limited mutually by the levels of N and P and by their stoichiometric proportions. At the levels of total P and N (Ptot and Ntot) below 17 µg/L and 150 µg/L respectively, HABs probability is low. At Ptot>17 µg/L, HABs are limited by N rather than P. At Ntot>180 µg/L, HABs probability becomes increased. In the major part of the lake, N is mostly organic and NO3– levels are low, NH4+ being predominant among the inorganic forms of N. This makes conditions for the development of green algae and for the predominance of cyanobacteria. At [NO3-]:[NH4+] within 0.1 to 1.0, the probability of cyanoHABs is high. HABs development is promoted by [NO3-] > 2.5 µg/L upon [РО43-] > 3.1 µg/l, the N:P ratio being above 9.7. The ascertaining of the critical levels of N- and P-containing compounds will be useful in HABs forecasting and in understanding of HABs development in Arctic water basins.

Keywords


Arctic, chlorophyll a, eutrophication, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24855/biosfera.v12i3.547

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