CORRELATION BETWEEN RADIOACTIVE CESIUM AND THE INCREASE OF PANCREATIC CANCER: A HYPOTHESIS

S. Venturi

Abstract


Worldwide, both the incidence and death rates of pancreatic cancer (PC) are increasing. While the exact cause of PC is not known, certain risk factors are associated with the disease, including tobacco smoking, obesity and diabetes. The present author studied associations between radioactive cesium (137Cs) and increases in PC. There is a correlation between the geographical map of the incidence of and mortality from PC and the map of nuclear plants, related nuclear accidents and nuclear tests with consequent radioactive fallout, of which 137Cs, with its half-life of about 30 years, is one of the most relevant components. Published data in medical literature at World, European and Italian levels are reviewed and compared. In human and animal bodies, cesium ions behave like potassium ion (K+). Cs+ is absorbed from plants and fruit competitively with K+ and is localized mainly inside cells. 137Cs is present in the environment for at least 10-20 times its half-life, i.e. about 300-600 years. Autoradiographic studies in mice have shown that 137Cs is concentrated in significant quantities in the pancreas, in particular in exocrine cells, where most PCs featuring high malignancy originate. The pancreas and the salivary glands secrete cesium into the intestine thus eliminating about 14% of absorbed Cs with the feces, whereas the remaining 86% is eliminated by kidney with the urine. Some previous studies between radioactive Cs and tumors in general have been also reported.

Keywords


Radioactive Cesium, Pancreatic Cancer, Nuclear Accidents and Tests, Epidemiology

Full Text:

PDF

References


1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures. Atlanta; 2019.

2. Bandazhevsky YI. Chronic Cs-137 incorporation in children's organs. Swiss Med Wkly. 2003;133(35-36):488-90.

3. Dušek L, Vyzula R, Melichar B, Abrahámová J, Fínek J, Petruželka L, Vorlíček J. Číselné podklady pro plánování nákladů léčebné péče v onkologii, analýzy dostupných populačních dat a predikce pro rok. In: Modrá Kniha České Onkologické Společnosti. Brno: Masarykův Onkologický Ústav; 2014. P:254-97. (In Czech)

4. Edling C, Comba P, Axelson O, Flodin U. Effects of low-dose radiation - a correlation study. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1982;8(Suppl 1):59-64.

5. Environmental Protection Agency Bulletin. HyperPhysics; 2017.

6. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin D.M, Forman D, Bray F. GLOBOCAN 2012. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide. IARC Cancer Base No. 11. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); 2013.

7. Gawlik D, Behne D, Kraft D, Offermann G. The influence of renal insufficiency on caesium metabolism in man and rat (with a note on the Cs content of some biological standard materials). J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1989;3(1):43-50.

8. GBD 2017. Pancreatic Cancer Collaborators. The global, regional, and national burden of pancreatic cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 4(12):934-947. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30347-4.

9. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Volume 100D. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100D/ .

10. Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic: Czech National Cancer Registry (CNCR). http://www.uzis.cz/registry-nzis/nor .

11. International Chernobyl Project Technical Report. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna; 1991.

12. Kluger J. Japan’s Radiation Exposure: How Serious Is It? Time, March 12, 2011.

13. Leung KM, Shabat G, Lu P, Fields AC, Lukashenko A, Davids JS, Melnitchouk N. Trends in solid tumor incidence in Ukraine 30 years after chernobyl. J Glob Oncol. 2019(5):1-10. doi:10.1200/jgo.19.

14. Lestaevel P, Racine R, Bensoussan H, Rouas C, Gueguen Y et al. Césium 137: propriétés et effets biologiques après contamination interne [Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination]. Médecine Nucléaire. 2010;34(2):108-18. (in French)

15. Major nuclear accidents around the world. China Daily, 17-3-2017. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2011-03/17/content_12185169.htm

16. Map of Nuclear Power Plants Showing the Location of the World’s Nuclear Power Plants. International Nuclear Safety Center; 2015

17. Meusburger K. The new map of Cesium-137 radioactive contamination in Europe. Scientific Reports, Basel; 2020.

18. Moseman A. 24 Years After Chernobyl, Radioactive Boars Still Roam Germany. Discover magazine; 2010. https://www.discovermagazine.com/environment/24-years-after-chernobyl-radioactive-boars-still-roam-germany

19. Nelson A, Ullberg S, Kristoffersson H, Ronnback C. Distribution of radiocesium in mice. Acta Radiol. 1961;55:374-84.

20. Numeri del Cancro in Italia. Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica; 2018. https://www.ars.toscana.it/images/2018_NumeriCancro-operatori.pdf.

21. Pogharian A. Map Monday, Where are the world’s nuclear power plants? Interweaving Mythology, Science, & History. August 24, 2015. http://www.armenpogharian.com/map-monday-where-are-the-worlds-nuclear-power-plants/

22. Puschmann O. Fortsatt nedforing etter radioaktivitet i dyr som har vært på utmarksbeitein. Eksterne lenker; Matportalen-radioaktitivitet; 2009. (In Norwegian) https://qa.landbruksdirektoratet.no/no/erstatning/palegg-og-restriksjoner/radioaktivitet/fortsatt-nedforing-etter-radioaktivitet-i-dyr-som-har-v%C3%A6rt-p%C3%A5-utmarksbeite

23. Rawla P, Sunkara T, Gaduputi V. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer: Global trends, etiology and risk factors. World J Oncol. 2019;10(1):10-27.

24. Rosenzweig A. New Global Cancer Statistics Released. Pancreatic Cancer Action Network; 2018. https://www.pancan.org/facing-pancreatic-cancer/

25. Sovacool BK, Brown MA,Valentine SV. Fact and Fiction in Global Energy Policy: Fifteen Contentious Questions. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2016.

26. UNSCEAR 2000 Report, Vol. 2, Annex J. United Nations, New York and Geneva; 2000.

27. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A.), Radiation Emergencies. CDC. 20 Oct 2013.

28. Venturi S, Venturi M. Iodide, thyroid and stomach carcinogenesis: evolutionary story of a primitive antioxidant? Eur J Endocrinol. 1999;140(4):371-2.

29. Williams D. Cancer after nuclear fallout: lessons from the Chernobyl accident. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2:543-9.

30. Zrielykh L. Analysis of statistics of pancreatic cancer in Ukraine for a period of 10 years. J Clin Oncol. 2020;38(15_suppl), e16721-e16721. doi:10.1200/JCO.2020.38.15_suppl.e16721




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24855/biosfera.v12i4.556

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.