ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ И КЛИНИКО-БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ НАРУШЕНИЙ ЦИРКАДИАННЫХ РИТМОВ СОН-БОДРСТВОВАНИЕ У ДЕТЕЙ И ПОДРОСТКОВ

И.А. Кельмансон

Abstract


В промышленно развитых странах интенсивное применение искусственного освещения в темное время суток создает серьезную экологическую проблему, получившую название «световое загрязнение» среды, которое может приводить к нарушениям биологических ритмов. Наиболее значимым и заметным ритмическим феноменом, наблюдаемым в организме человека, является ритм сна-бодрствования и связанные с ним изменения физиологических и психических процессов. Есть и другие, так называемые циркадианные ритмы, включающие процессы, которые меняются с периодичностью приблизительно в 24 часа. Формирование циркадианных ритмов происходит в онтогенезе ребенка, обеспечивается за счет участия эндогенных факторов с вовлечением определенных анатомических структур, и для нормального функционирования циркадианных ритмов сон-бодрствование требуется их синхронизация с чередованием темного и светлого времени суток. Нарушения циркадианного ритма сон-бодрствование представляют собой серьезную клинико-биологическую проблему в детском и подростковом возрастах. Рассмотрены важнейшие клинические варианты нарушений циркадианных ритмов, в числе которых задержка и опережение фазы сна, нерегулярный ритм сон-бодрствование, свободно текущий (несинхронизированный) ритм; нарушения, связанные с длинными перелетами и сменной работой. Обсуждаются главные причины возникновения указанных нарушений, их возможные негативные последствия для ребенка, подходы к диагностике, профилактике и коррекции.

Keywords


мелатонин сон фототерапия хронотип циркадианные ритмы

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24855/biosfera.v7i1.52

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