LONG-TERM CHANGES IN THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF KUOTSJARVI LAKE ECOSYSTEM (PASVIK RIVER SYSTEM, MURMANSK OBLAST, RUSSIA)

Е.М. Зубова, Н.А. Кашулин, В.А. Даувальтер, Д.Б. Денисов, С.А. Валькова, О.И. Вандыш, П.М. Терентьев, А.А. Черепанов

Abstract


The lake Kuotsjarvi (lower course of Pasvik River, Murmansk Oblast) is located in the borderline territory between Russia and Norway. It one of the most polluted water bodies of European Arctic. Because of the the metallurgic plant Pechenganikel located at the coast of the lake is the source, water and bottom sediments of the lake contain extremely high levels of heavy metals. Long-term comprehensive studies of the ecosystem of the lake revealed that the responses of its ecosystem to global and regional environmental and climatic changes include an increasing toxicity and eutrophication of lake water, decreasing number of stenobiont aqueous species and increasing numbers of ubiquistic and invasive species. The present-time communities in the lake developed as results of interactions between long-term changes in abiotic and biotic factors. Pollution with heavy metals, which lasts since 1990-ies, resulted in the development of communities of species that are tolerant to this impact and are able to maintain their abundance. Adaptations of the communities to changes in their environments are manifested as changes in their species compositions, in proportions of different taxonomic groups, and structures of their populations. In particular, whitefish is able to remain the dominant species and sustain its populations due to development of sympatric forms differing in their ecological niches, morphological features, and life cycle strategies, including transition to shorter life cycles. At difference from changes at the levels of organisms, responses of populations and communities to medium-term environmental changes are more inertial and less specific.

Keywords


pollution, heavy metals, ecosystem, Kuotsjarvi Lake

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24855/biosfera.v11i4.513

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