THE SEASONAL CHANGES IN THE CONTENT OF DE-ICING SALTS IN SOD-PODZOL SOIL IN LABORATORY AND FIELD EXPERIMENTS

А.О. Герасимов, М.В. Чугунова, Ю.М. Поляк

Abstract


De-icing preparations (DIP) used in winter to prevent ice and snow deposits in cities are one of the most harmful anthropogenic factors. Numerous investigations on this topic are dedicated to the environmental impact of technical sodium chloride, whereas less attention is paid to new-generation reagents. The present paper reports the results of laboratory and field studies of nine DIPs used in Saint Petersburg, including chlorides and newer preparations of acetates and formates. The laboratory experiments showed that high doses of chloride reagents can increase salt content in soils to levels corresponding to low salinity (maximum values were 3.96 mS/cm), which are potentially dangerous to plants and soil microorganisms. Under field conditions, salt content in soil eventually decreased. Salts were washed out from the upper soil horizons by atmospheric precipitation. By the end of vegetation season, the maximum concentration did not exceed 0.29 mS/cm, i.e. corresponded to background indices. Accordingly, contaminated soils toxicity for plants and microorganisms decreased. The results suggest that the least environmentally harmful anti-ice salts are the acetate and formate preparations Nordway and Clearway. Magnesium chlorides "Bishofi") proved to be less dangerous among chloride-based DIP. The permissible doses of DIP salts for urban streets in the Northwest of Russia are within 50 g/m2.

Keywords


de-icing salts; soils; plants; experiment; salt content.

References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24855/biosfera.v11i4.512

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