MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF PLANT IMMUNITY AND THEIR COEVOLUTION WITH INSECTS

А.В. Конарев

Abstract


The immense variety of plants and insects has developed by their coevolution over hundreds millions years. The need to protect plant tissues and organs and of energy and building resources stored therein was the driving force of the development of numerous and sophisticated mechanisms of plant immunity. Because of complex behaviors of phytophagous insects, including their abilities to choose nutritional plants according to their biochemical, morphological and other features, and due to elaborate digestive systems, as well as many other characteristics, the mechanisms of plant immunity against insects are largely independent from those against microorganisms. However, at the level of the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction and response triggering, the modalities of plant protection against insects and microorganisms have much in common. Plant hormonal systems involved in the protective responses may interact in synergetic and antagonistic manners, and insects and microorganisms may interfere with these interactions for their benefit. In this regard, the chemical components of plant protective mechanisms, including virtually all classes of secondary metabolites, are important either by producing direct toxic, repellent, anti-nutritive and/or other deleterious effects on phytophages or by attracting entomophages. The numerous mechanisms of the effects of these substances range from destruction of cell membrane to increasing the cost of food assimilation. No less diverse are the means used by insects to neutralize substances used by plants for self-protection. In natural plant-insect systems, each of system parts is represented by communities of different organisms. Symbiotic, parasitic and pathogenic organisms are all involved in plant-insect interactions and coevolution. In developing of plant cultivars resistant to pests, it is important to account of possible consequences of the operation of a particular protective mechanism for the entire complex of interactive organisms in an agricultural system, not only for a particular species. Measures that do not accelerate the microevolution of pests are likely to produce more gentle effects of ecosystems. Such measures may include, e.g., those based on the inhibitors of digestive enzymes in insects. Better understanding of the coevolution of plants and insects and of the molecular nature of the adaptation of phytophages to plant-protecting substances is essential for developing pests- resistant cultivars.

Keywords


plant immunity against insects, coevolution of plants and insects, proteinases, α-amylases, inhibitors

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24855/biosfera.v9i1.325

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